How do you make a web map?
This is the question I have been exploring for the past while as I try to expand my basic knowledge of GIS beyond the ARC. As a result of this exploration, I have put a few maps on-line, developed a keen passion for map making and an interest in expanding my skills. This post comprises a list of my mapping tools - those I currently use, those I am actively learning, and those on my list to learn. The geo-stack that I am working toward comprises of the following:
- PostGIS - works as the spatial database for storing and serving the data to either QGIS or TileMill
- QGIS + TileMill - QGIS is a great tool for analyzing and processing data, TileMill makes it look good and allows an export of MBTiles.
- PHP Tile Server - This serves the MBTiles onto the internet.
- Leaflet JS - Leaflet provides the user interface allowing someone on-line to interact with the MBTiles.
While I am learning the components of this stack, I use other things, described below.
Web mapping tools I use
Open Data - Open data forms the basis for most of my base map data. Open Street Map extracts allows me to build interesting, complete and free base maps, and various open data portals offer data for mashing. My goto data portals are:
- Edmonton's Open Data Portal
- Government of Alberta's Open Data Portal
- Government of Canada Open Data Portal
- Stats Can
- Natural Earth
- Open Street Map Metro Extracts
- Open Street Map Country and Province Extracts
- Canadian GIS: a list a open/free data sources from Canadian GIS
OpenStreetMap - I am a minor contributor to OSM, and mainly use it as a database for urban, Edmonton, data. For instance, an ongoing project is to classify each building by type (apartment, commercial, etc) in downtown Edmonton so that I can update my DTYEG map and create an accurate land use map of #yegdt. Cartographica - I mainly use Cartographica as a desktop geocoder, quick and dirty data viz tool. I love how simple it is to dump data into the view window, and how quick it renders large data sets. It is a light and easy way to quickly get a sense of a dataset, plus it has a 'live' map feed of OpenStreetMap or Bing. It can import or export to KML, and complete some lightweight data analysis like heat maps. QGIS - Where Cartographica is light, QGIS is robust. A free way to get a full GIS on your desktop, and because I run an iMac, the easiest way to do spatial analysis without loading a Windows VM (and much cheaper too, as in free). I love QGIS, but it requires a set of skills comparable to those used in ArcGIS. I am still building this skill set. TileMill - TileMill is awesome. A super easy to use map style machine by MapBox, TileMill uses CartoCSS (Cartographic Cascading Style Sheets) to code the look of each point, line, polygon and raster within your map. It renders maps fast and beautiful, and dumps them in a variety of formats, including MBTiles, which you can then load onto the MapBox site for a fully interactive map experience. MapBox - MapBox provides two services that I find vital - (1) web hosting and (2) base maps that can be styled. I am not yet skilled enough to take the MBTimes and put them online myself, so I rely on a MapBox subscription to host my maps. If I am working with a large geographic area, and am not yet skilled at dealing with huge data sets, so I also use MapBox's base map, from OSM, which can be made custom. Also, MapBox provides some great satellite imagery as a base map, and an awesome blog on what is new in mapping.
Web mapping tools I am learning
PostGIS - I learned recently that the cool kids pronounce this as Poist-jis NOT Post G-I-S. PostJis is hard and I don't really get it - it is a OSS project that adds support to geographic data within a PostSQL database. I have been working with a Refractions Research tutorial, and have been able to install PostgreSQL and enable PostGIS, but I am unfamiliar with SQL so I find it hard even knowing how to compose a command. Lots to learn here. My PostGIS resources include:
Web mapping tools I want to learn
GeoJSon - A JS derivative (as is TopoJSon) of JS that codes spatial data such as point, line, polygon. In the web mapping context it is a much more powerful format than ESRI Shape Files as it is lighter (i.e. quicker) and can be integrated into the code of the map.
This is not a complete list - in fact it is barely a list. Please add a comment to point out what I am missing.
- GitHub Learn GeoJson - GitHub is a place where programmers, especially those working on the OSS space, keep their code for others to download, use and improve upon. This is made by Lyzi Diamond.
- Maptime! - An awesome list of mapping resources by Alan McConchie (@almccon) and Matthew McKenna (@mpmckenna8).
- Spatial Analysis On-line - As I try to remember my GIS courses, this is the on-line text that I reference to help me understand the analysis I want to run.
- Mapschool - Tom MacWright wrote this as a crash course in mapping for developers.
Colour and Maps
These are the colour palette websites that I reference:
Finally, NASA has a great 6 part series on colour theory called the "Subtleties of Color".